• Syeda Mina Faisal Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, The University of Lahore, Pakistan
  • Andleeb Anwar Research Associate / Teaching Assistant, Faculty of Law, The University of Lahore, Pakistan
  • Nazar Hussain Department of Public Administration, SALU Khairpur, Pakistan.


Human Rights, Ancient Code, Modern Challenges


This research article delves into the intricate tapestry of human rights, responsibilities, and societal codes, tracing their development from ancient times to the challenges of the modern era. It highlights the crucial role played by written and unwritten codes in shaping the liberties, taboos, and obligations within different societies. By examining historical documents such as the Hindu holy Vedas, the holy Babylonian Code of Hammurabi, the Bible, the holy Quran, and the Analects of Confucius, we explore how various cultures have addressed questions about human duties, rights, and responsibilities. The article also delves into the catastrophic events of the twentieth century, specifically the two World Wars, which witnessed massive human rights violations. The unparalleled destruction and loss of life during these global conflicts underscores the imperative need for international efforts to protect civilians during wartime. Post-WW-II, the Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials were pivotal in holding officials from defeated nations accountable for war crimes, crimes against peace, and crimes against humanity. Eleanor Roosevelt's poignant observation regarding the incalculable impact on human beings in times of conflict resonates throughout this exploration. Ultimately, this research article seeks to shed light on the ongoing evolution of human rights and responsibilities in a world continually striving for common ground, justice, and the well-being of its members.


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How to Cite

Faisal, S. M., Anwar, A., & Hussain, N. (2023). EXPLORING THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES: FROM ANCIENT CODES TO MODERN CHALLENGES. PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences), 3(2), 70–82. Retrieved from http://pakistanislamicus.com/index.php/home/article/view/46