PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) <p><a title="HEC Y Category" href=";id=1055199#journal_result" target="_blank" rel="noopener">HEC "<strong>Y</strong>" Category</a><br />Pakistan Islamicus (An International Journal of Islamic &amp; Social Sciences) is a double-blind peer-reviewed scholarly journal in three languages: Arabic, Urdu, and English, published by the <a title="MIRC-PK" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Muslim Intellectuals Research Center, Multan-Pakistan</a>. It is an Open-Access Bi-Annual Peer-Reviewed Print and Online journal that has become a Multidisciplinary Academic Journal with an International Advisory Board representing various research fields. This journal is launched to promote the study of general areas of Islamic and Social Sciences (Misscellanious).</p> Muslim Intellectuals Research Center, Multan-Pakistan en-US PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2789-9365 <p><strong>This work is licensed under a <a title="Creative Commons Attribution" href="">Creative Commons Attribution </a></strong><a title="Creative Commons Attribution" href=""><strong style="font-size: 0.875rem;">4.</strong><strong style="font-size: 0.875rem;">0 International License.</strong></a></p> قصاص ودیت کے احکام کا تطبیقی وترجیحی مطالعہ تفسیر النکت کی روشنی میں <p>Tafseer al-Nukat has been written by Abu al-Ḥassan bin Muḥammad al-Māwardī. This is written in the context of fiqh. This article aims at the discussion about the Qasās and Diyyat and their philosophy and implications. The study is analytical and descriptive. Examples from the book of al-Māwardī have been taken and discussed. Al-Māwardī has given preference to some of the jurisprudential matters with arguments. Qurān and the sunnah of the holy prophet have been used as main sources to make it more authentic and reasonable. Moreover, the opinions of old and contemporary jurists have been also analyzed and discussed about the matter under discussion. It can be concluded that al-Mawardī has discussed and presented the viewpoint of the some of mufassreen of his era.</p> Abdul Basit Dr Muhammad Waris Ali Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-07-09 2023-07-09 3 2 01 14 کروناوائرس احتیاطی تدابیر: سامی ادیان کی روشنی میں <p>Throughout human history, outbreaks of infectious diseases have had deep and lasting effects on societies. Those events have powerfully shaped the economic, political, and social aspects of human civilization, with their impacts often lasting for centuries. Epidemic outbreaks also affect educational institutions as well as places of worship. Deadly pandemics have been occurring throughout history. Pandemics such as the Black Death (a plague outbreak during the 14th century), the Spanish flu of 1918 HIV, Sars, Ebola, Zika and the outbreak in the 21st century COVID-19 also caused millions of casualties all over the world. In the current study, 3the Religious teachings on infectious diseases are explained in the light of the Semitic religions have been explored. The study reveals that the Semitic religions have given overt instructions to their believers to stay aware of such epidemics and take into consideration preventive measures for the safety of public health. The study also recommends that religious scholars need to consider such important instructions and make them a part of their every day speeches and discussions that may guarantee protection to the public from such unforeseen and sudden contemporary medical issues.</p> Afia Mehdi Maaz Ghouri Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-07-15 2023-07-15 3 2 15 30 پاکستان کے سربراہِ مملکت کےآئینی اختیارات:اسلامی تعلیمات کی روشنی میں تجزیاتی مطالعہ <p>For any nation, the position of head of state is crucial. This is the head, which significantly impacts all national affairs. He is in charge of fostering national growth. According to all schools of thought, the head of state should conduct all affairs in conformity with the nation's constitution. The fundamental element for each is the power the Constitution and the law allow them. The country's parliament approves all of the powers given to the head of state. A majority of people in Pakistan are Muslims. According to the preamble of Pakistan's constitution, all laws must adhere to the Qur'an and Sunnah. However, we can see from history that many decisions were made illegally, violating the Constitution and the law. Therefore, it became imperative to bring all governmental authority in Islamic doctrine to light. This study compares the head of state's authority in Pakistan's Constitution to Islamic principles.</p> Muhammad Jawad Qadir Muhammad Abid Raza Mehdi Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-07-19 2023-07-19 3 2 31 56 The Law of CSR and Customer Loyalty: A Case of Pakistan’s Commercial Banks <p>Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is becoming pivotal with each passing day for value creation, particularly in the banking industry mainly in Pakistan. Although, with of move of financial liberalization of the early 2000s the said industry is competing for enhancing customers’ perceived value (PV) which is the foundation of persistent customer loyalty. Henceforth, the study aims to investigate the impact of corporate social responsibility on the perceived value of customers which ultimately converts into loyalty for the long-term upholding of customers in the banking industry of Pakistan. The results of the study confirm that CSR activities conducted by banks have a significant impact on trust, commitment, and satisfaction However, the value perceived by customers is significantly important for enhancing their loyalty to their bank which is imperative for long-term relationships.</p> Muzammil Khurshid Dr. Muhammad Azeem Rohania Ahmad Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-07-15 2023-07-15 3 2 01 22 PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF HUMAN HEALTH: AN ANALYTICAL STUDY IN THE LIGHT OF ISLAMIC TEACHING <p>Today, psychological and mental problems are of great importance in human life. To get rid of them, it is very necessary that we should be fully aware of our mental state, and let's admit that our mental state is indeed disturbed in case of any psychological disease. Usually, this short-term affected state of mind can be quickly reversed at the beginning level. For this purpose, we can be successful in overcoming this condition by using suitable management techniques. But to get rid of long-term problems, the need arises to change our lifestyle, behavior, environment, and some more things for a better and more peaceful life. This research will highlight the causes, symptoms, and treatment along with Islamic solutions.</p> dr Fayyaz Ahmad Farooque Dr Makhdoom Muhammad Roshan Siddiqui Dr Tanveer Huma Ansari Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-07-20 2023-07-20 3 2 23 33 ENFORCEMENT OF TRADEMARKS AND COPYRIGHTS UNDER IP LAW: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS <p>Both trademarks and copyright are forms of intellectual property protection that provide their respective owners with the right to prevent others from using their work without their permission. The goods and services of one source may be distinguished from those of others by the use of distinctive signs, designs, or expressions that are trademarks. Words, phrases, logos, symbols, or even combinations of these are all acceptable. Trademarks play an important role in establishing brand recognition and loyalty among customers. A trademark's principal function is to prohibit third parties from using a mark that is confusingly similar to the registered trademark. Although some trademark rights can be established through common law use, registration with the relevant trademark office is the usual method for acquiring such rights. Working closely with intellectual property professionals to develop comprehensive protection and enforcement strategies, keeping up-to-date on changes in intellectual property laws, implementing proactive monitoring strategies, educating employees and stakeholders about intellectual property rights, and enforcing intellectual property rights are all necessary responses. (Bonadio &amp; Weissenberger, 2021) It's important to keep in mind that the precise difficulties and problems might differ depending on the kind of company, the sector, and the location. Insight into them is provided in this article.</p> Dr Syed Raza Shah Gilani Dr Ali Mohammed Al Matrooshi Dr Muhammad Haroon Khan Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-07-18 2023-07-18 3 2 34 50 CROSS-BORDER TRADEMARK INFRINGEMENT IN THE DIGITAL AGE: JURISDICTIONAL CHALLENGES AND HARMONIZATION EFFORTS. <p>Within the ever-changing realm of the digital era, the issue of trademark infringement across borders has become a complex obstacle that challenges the traditional limits of safeguarding intellectual property. The research paper explores the intricate relationship between digital technologies, online platforms, and the limitations in enforcing trademark rights across different jurisdictions. The study examines the complex legal challenges that legal systems worldwide face when dealing with the global movement of goods, services, and information. The paper explores how different jurisdictions, like the United States, European Union, and China, tackle the increasing problem of cross-border trademark infringement. Additionally, the study thoroughly analyzes global attempts to achieve harmonization across nations and their effectiveness in resolving conflicts between worldwide trade and local legal systems. This paper aims to contribute to finding practical solutions that align trademark protection with the realities of the digital era. It does so by exploring the details of jurisdictional intricacies and potential pathways for harmonization. This research highlights the importance of countries working together to protect intellectual property rights and promote a global economy in the context of cross-border trademark infringement.</p> Muhammad Hamza Zakir Rashna Salman Ali Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-07-20 2023-07-20 3 2 51 69 EXPLORING THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES: FROM ANCIENT CODES TO MODERN CHALLENGES <p>This research article delves into the intricate tapestry of human rights, responsibilities, and societal codes, tracing their development from ancient times to the challenges of the modern era. It highlights the crucial role played by written and unwritten codes in shaping the liberties, taboos, and obligations within different societies. By examining historical documents such as the Hindu holy Vedas, the holy Babylonian Code of Hammurabi, the Bible, the holy Quran, and the Analects of Confucius, we explore how various cultures have addressed questions about human duties, rights, and responsibilities. The article also delves into the catastrophic events of the twentieth century, specifically the two World Wars, which witnessed massive human rights violations. The unparalleled destruction and loss of life during these global conflicts underscores the imperative need for international efforts to protect civilians during wartime. Post-WW-II, the Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials were pivotal in holding officials from defeated nations accountable for war crimes, crimes against peace, and crimes against humanity. Eleanor Roosevelt's poignant observation regarding the incalculable impact on human beings in times of conflict resonates throughout this exploration. Ultimately, this research article seeks to shed light on the ongoing evolution of human rights and responsibilities in a world continually striving for common ground, justice, and the well-being of its members.</p> Syeda Mina Faisal Andleeb Anwar Nazar Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-07-22 2023-07-22 3 2 70 82 THE EFFECT OF PERCEIVED RISK AND PERCEIVED VALUE ON INTENTION TO USE IN PLATFORM ECONOMY IN THE CASE OF PAKISTAN <p>This study uses survey data from users of the online platform economy in Pakistan to understand the effect of perceived risk and perceived utility on their participation. The platform economy is a type of business that matches the demand and supply of users using digital tools. Pakistan is a growing market with platforms such as Uber, In-drive, Food Panda, Daraz, etc. The survey was conducted in 9 cities in Pakistan to understand the effect of perceived risk and perceived utility on intention to use online platforms. Structured Equation Modelling (SEM) estimation technique is applied and results show that the economic benefit and mobility have a positive impact on perceived utility while perceived risk negatively impacts it. Perceived utility in turn is a major determinant of intention to participate in the online platform economy. The results of this study show that the government and platforms should come together to make these platforms secure thus enhancing the perceived utility and intention to use of platform economy.</p> Maryam Batool Professor Dr Muhammad Azmat Hayat Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-07-24 2023-07-24 3 2 83 94 ROBOTS AND INTERNATIONAL LAW: NAVIGATING THE LEGAL LANDSCAPE <p>Integrating robotics and artificial intelligence into military operations has raised complex legal questions regarding their compliance with international law. This paper delves into the multifaceted relationship between robots and international legal norms, exploring their implications in various domains. The study categorizes robotic weapon systems into three classifications based on human involvement: Human in Loop, Human On Loop, and Human Out of Loop systems. It scrutinizes the compliance of these systems with international laws, including International Human Rights Law, with a focus on humanity, the right to life, bodily integrity/security, due process rights, the right to remedy, and the extraterritorial application of human rights. Furthermore, the paper investigates the intersection of robots with International Humanitarian Law. It examines their impact on other international legal regimes, such as the Law of the Sea and Space Law. The analysis extends to the relevance of domestic legal frameworks in governing robotic technologies. By synthesizing these perspectives, this research contributes to a deeper understanding of the legal challenges posed by robots today. Ultimately, it highlights the need for a nuanced and comprehensive approach to ensure that robots comply with international law while serving various societal functions.</p> Maseeh Ullah Andleeb Anwar Muhammad Atif Nazir Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-07-26 2023-07-26 3 2 95 112 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY STANDARDS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY: A KAP STUDY FROM DISTRICT LAHORE, PUNJAB PAKISTAN <p>Occupational safety standards are characterized as a complex set of regulations, procedures, methods, and guidelines that protect workers and ensure their safety at the workplace. These standards are designed to reduce the risk of incidents, injuries, and death in the risky nature of workplaces like the construction industry. Occupational safety standards in the construction industry are significantly associated with the protection of social, physical, psychological, and environmental hazards such as harmful materials, slips and falls, dangerous machinery, long working hours, life &amp; health threats, welfare &amp; basic rights, emergency response &amp; safety tools and compensation among others. This study explores the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of occupational safety standards in the construction industry in Lahore, with the objective of identifying the factors influencing the KAP of safety standards, the degree to which safety standards are being implemented, and the challenges that workers face in adhering to safety standards. The study employed a mixed-methods approach and primary data was collected through focus group discussions and surveys of 384 respondents. The findings indicated that there is a need for significant improvement in the safety policies and practices in the construction industry. The workers have a low level of KAP and a huge proportion of workers were not following safety protocols.</p> Ayesha Siddiqui Muhammad Arshad Dr Afzaal Afzal Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-07-27 2023-07-27 3 2 113 128 IMPACT OF EDUCATION AND INCOME INEQUALITY ON POVERTY RATE OF PAKISTAN: AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS <p>Education and income inequality are essential elements determining each country's socioeconomic environment. In Pakistan, like many developing nations, these variables are critical in determining individuals' well-being and possibilities. This research study tries to identify the role of Education and income Inequality on Poverty in Pakistan. The study data was collected from the WDI and economic survey of Pakistan. The Headcount ratio (HDR) is used to quantify poverty as the explained variables, while Education, life expectancy, labour force participation rate, and income inequality serve as the exploratory variables. The empirical results are estimated by using ARDL from 1990 to 2019. This study indicates that education and labour force participation declined poverty while income inequality increases poverty in Pakistan. Education generates different job opportunities, ultimately mitigating Pakistan's poverty level. This study suggests the government should increase the share of education investment, which significantly reduces poverty in Pakistan.</p> Muhammad Imtiaz Muhammad Yasin Abid Dr Salman Masood Sheikh Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-07-30 2023-07-30 3 2 129 141 WORKPLACE SEXUAL HARASSMENT: A STUDY OF FEMALE NURSES FROM HEALTHCARE INSTITUTES OF LAHORE, PAKISTAN. <p>Workplace sexual harassment of women is an imperative aspect and one of the most challenging impediments in the process of gender equality and women empowerment globally. Today’s women proved themselves through more productive roles and claimed equal collective rights along with better access to resources, acceptance, security, and self-respect in their families, communities, and workplaces. The increasing involvement of women in the workforce increases the incidents of sexual harassment at the workplace and become the largest hindrance towards women psycho-social and economic empowerment. To understand the actual situation this descriptive study was carried out with the female nursing staff in various public hospitals of Lahore. A structured self-administered questionnaire was utilized to collect primary data through multistage simple random sampling methods. Various univariate, bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were applied through SPSS-21 for comprehensive understanding and coherent discussion. The findings reveled that a huge proportion of the study population faces sexual harassment in the workplace. Male staff especially doctors and male nurses were found to be the most common perpetrators of sexual harassment against female nurses. The participants reported that sexual harassment in the workplace is a serious problem that significantly impacts the social, psychological, physical, and economic condition and productivity of female nurses.</p> Reena Shahzadi Muhammad Arshad Dr Afzaal Afzal Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-08-01 2023-08-01 3 2 142 157 SOCIOECONOMIC CHALLENGES FACED BY PERFORMING ARTISTS DURING PANDEMIC (COVID-19) <p>During the pandemic, artists faced many problems of varied nature related to health vise and socioeconomic changes whose significance hampered creation and its expression in a harmonized memory. The aim of the researcher is not only to promote art but to preserve it in writing and photography. The art institutes of Rawalpindi and Islamabad visited in order to do the writing and to capture data in relevance to the objectives of the research. The topic of the article is <strong>“Socioeconomic Challenges Faced by Performing Artists During Pandemic (COVID-19)”. </strong>The study aims to explore socioeconomic problems, and the challenges faced by artists during pandemics to advance the arts. Research uses the methods of case study by conducting in-depth interviews. The purpose of this research is to investigate and analyze these problems to comprehend their ramifications and provide effective tactics and interventions to assist performing artists during this critical era. By addressing the problem statement, this study aims to add to the body of knowledge and provide significant insights and recommendations for supporting the arts community's resilience, recovery, and long-term sustainability in the face of the pandemic's socioeconomic problems.</p> Rashina Mehr Dr Nazia Rafiq Roheena Sajid Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-08-01 2023-08-01 3 2 158 165 A STUDY OF THE CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED BY FEMALE TEACHERS APPOINTED IN MALE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS <p>Men and women are always two sides of the same coin, each possessing unique qualities and approaching situations in their own distinct ways. Although possible, a male practitioner can think about fluttering, but still, it is disciplined in the eyes of a talented holder. We are living in a society where everyone expects female nurses and teachers to treat and educate women, but unfortunately, there is a prevalent dislike and resistance towards allowing our own females to participate in education. This research examined one aspect of this educational system which is the problem of female teachers in lower Punjab. This study explored the social problems of these teachers, the level of their job satisfaction, the level of their confidence, and their performance. The population of this study consisted of all the Elementary school of Southern, Punjab Pakistan which has female staff in male Elementary school. The sample was comprised, of 200 female teachers. In non-probability, sampling convenient sample was used. Questionnaires were developed to know their views on the current situation. The value of Cronbach's alpha was 0.750, which shows a high level of reliability of the scale (questionnaire). In our conservative society female teachers face problems appointed in male schools but this study result shows that female teachers are satisfied with their appointment. All the females/participants in this study gave free responses through a questionnaire they are happy to work with male teachers.</p> Muhammad Saqib Sarfraz Hussain Dr Muhammad Arif Nasir Mehmood Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-08-03 2023-08-03 3 2 166 177 BUDGET ALLIANCE, MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES, AND TWIN DEFICIT: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SELECTED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES <p>This study investigates the nexus between BD and CAD by employing the ADF &amp; ARDL tests from 2000 to 2020. Moreover, it is also examined that whether the Keynesian Theory of Proposition or Ricardian Equivalence Hypothesis is more appropriate for selected developing economies. The result revealed that FD &amp; CAD are positive &amp; significant for LIC and UMC. However, a negative coefficient was found for LMC and all developing countries. REER significantly affects the CAB for LMC, UMC and all developing countries except LIC. The impact of GFCF on CAB is negative for all cases. The coefficient of GDPPCG and Trade are insignificant for LIC. However, a significant relationship was found for LMC, UMC, and for all developing countries. This paper also pointed the theory of Keynesian proposition is more appropriate for LIC &amp; UMC. Similarly, the theory of the Ricardian Equivalence Hypothesis is more suitable for LMC and all developing countries.</p> Sohail ur Rasheed Aamir Haq Nawaz Khawaja Asif Mehmood Sidra Ilyas Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-08-05 2023-08-05 3 2 178 196 INCLUSION OF DEAF AND HARD OF HEARING STUDENTS AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW <p>The goal of inclusive education is to provide a learning environment where all students, regardless of their individual strengths and weaknesses, can thrive. This qualitative systematic review set out to investigate what characteristics help or hurt D/HH pupils' ability to participate in mainstream secondary school settings. The major goal was to determine successful approaches and barriers to their full participation in regular classrooms. With an emphasis on secondary school inclusion for D/HH children, a thorough literature analysis was undertaken covering the years 2010 through 2023. Several boosters were found after conducting the analysis; these were team-based instruction, individualized assistance, cooperative learning, and motivational techniques. On the other side, it brought to light obstacles like restricted access to educational opportunities, policy implementation hurdles, regulatory gaps, decreased participation in general education classes, and peer interaction problems. Supportive learning settings, healthy peer relationships, and inclusive classroom methods were all emphasized in the study as a means to improve the inclusion experience for D/HH children. The evidence-based recommendations covered a wide range of topics, including better teacher training, specialized support, improved social ties, increased co-teaching, revised policies, and post-secondary aid. Further exploration of the cultural settings and constraints faced by D/HH students was emphasized in this study, with an eye toward improving secondary education for all students.</p> Masood Ahmad Khan Muhammad Bilal Tahir Dr Muhammad Arif Dr Sahib Khan Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-08-07 2023-08-07 3 2 197 213 LEGAL FRAMEWORKS FOR CLIMATE REFUGEES: ADDRESSING THE GLOBAL CRISIS <p>The Primary Objective Of This Scholarly Article Is To Investigate The Changing Legal Structures Surrounding Individuals Impacted By Displacement Caused By Climate Change, Considering The Escalating Global Climate Challenges. The Urgent Concern Of Displacement Triggered By Climate Change Demands The Development Of Thorough Legal Tactics. This Article Aims To Explore The Current State Of Legal Frameworks At Both Global And Local Levels, Assess Their Strengths And Weaknesses, And Propose Strategies To Enhance The Protection And Assistance Provided To Individuals Affected By Displacement Caused By Climate Change.</p> Dr Rizwana Gul Muhammad Hamza Zakir Mehnaz Begum Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-08-09 2023-08-09 3 2 214 230 CULTIVATING EQUALITY: WOMEN’S RIGHTS IN RURAL CULTURAL SETTINGS <p>This study is about women's rights and the way these rights are influenced by cultural settings. To study the relationship between women's rights and culture, an anthropological lens will be used to understand the phenomenon. This is an exploration of the idea, of up to what extent; culture is responsible for influencing women's rights in different cultures and how the cultural settings can be transformed to encourage and ensure gender equality.</p> <p>The relevant literature suggests that there is a close relationship between women's rights and the culture, they live in. Multiple studies have proved that there is a strong correlation between the culture and the provision of women's rights. This study will focus on the issues of women's rights and will explore their link to the cultural settings.</p> <p>It is predominantly, a qualitative study that will employ the inductive research approach. Participants of the study include men and women from rural areas. Two different cultures within a rural setting have been selected for the study. This is because; it will bring clarity about women's rights and their relationship with the relevant cultural settings. Different data collection techniques will be used including in-depth interviews, archival research, and secondary data collection (data sets that have already been collected by government agencies or research organizations).</p> <p>This topic is interesting and worth researching because there is no substantial research available on the relationship between women's rights and culture in Pakistan. Pakistan could not achieve its goals that were committed in the CEDAW (Convention on Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women) and Sustainable Development Goals (2030) declarations. So, this study has both practical and theoretical importance. Furthermore, this study will also give a way out and coping strategies for including women in the process of development and to ensure gender equality. Moreover, this study may encourage policy-makers to focus on the solution of the phenomenon.</p> Roheena Sajid Dr Nazia Rafiq Rashina Mehr Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-08-11 2023-08-11 3 2 231 244 HYBRID WARFARE CREATING TIERS IN PAKISTANI CULTURE AND SOCIO-POLITICAL NORMS DURING 2010-2020 <p>The geo-strategic positioning of nations holds a profound influence on their identity, foreign relations, and overall development trajectory. Pakistan, situated at the confluence of South Asia, Central Asia, and the Middle East, occupies a pivotal geo-strategic crossroads. This unique positioning has rippled effects that permeate the core ethos of the country. This paper delves into the untwined nature of Pakistan's geo-strategic position and its far-reaching implications. Pakistan's geo-strategic significance emanates from its proximity to major regional players and crucial sea routes. This positioning, while offering opportunities, subjects the nation to regional conflicts and power dynamics. It has molded foreign relations, notably with India, and underscored security imperatives, particularly in light of the War on Terror and the volatile situation in Afghanistan. Economically, Pakistan's untwined geo-strategic location holds promise through initiatives like the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). However, it also poses challenges concerning border security and trade routes. Moreover, the cultural and identity complexities of Pakistan are influenced by its geo-strategic position, contributing to debates on national cohesion and diversity management. Internally, the impacts of Pakistan's geo-strategic position are keenly felt. Balancing the interests of diverse ethnic, religious, and political groups poses a governance challenge amidst regional conflicts. As the country charts its course, understanding its geo-strategic dynamics becomes paramount in crafting policies that align with its identity and aspirations. In conclusion, Pakistan's untwined geo-strategic position generates ripples that extend across various dimensions of its existence. Acknowledging this influence empowers the nation to navigate regional complexities and global challenges while preserving its core values and ethics.</p> Jahan Bakht Maleeka Zafar Muhammad Tariq Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-08-13 2023-08-13 3 2 245 255 A COMPARISON OF LETTER-OF-CREDIT IN PAKISTAN'S CONVENTIONAL AND ISLAMIC BANKS <p>In overseas trade, a Letter-of-Credit is simply a type of assurance for both the seller and the purchaser. Whether conventional or Islamic, a Letter-of-Credit is the most common payment method used by a purchaser and a seller in a foreign purchase agreement. Currently, a primary inquiry of a study is whether conventional and Islamic banks in Pakistan use letters of credit differently. The goal of this research is to define and compare a Letter-of-Credit's applicability in Pakistan's conventional and Islamic banking practices. To discover parallels and differences between the two techniques. A descriptive analysis was used to answer this study question. The findings of this study, except for the name used in Letter-of-Credit process documents, there are no differences between a Letter-of-Credit application made by conventional and Islamic banks in Pakistan. The instant study also found that, aside from basic agreement that adheres to <em>Sharia</em> rules, the operation of an Islamic letter of credit is relatively comparable to that of a standard letter of credit. Islamic letters of credit are similar to traditional letters. Because the differences between Islamic and traditional letters of credit are purely technical, they have almost the same ingredients. When comparing the <em>Wakalah</em> <em>(Islamic) </em>letter of credit to the conventional letter of credit, these are identical.</p> Syed Saqlain Ul Hassan Saima Sajid Sidra Kanwel Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-08-15 2023-08-15 3 2 256 275 ANIMAL RIGHTS IN ISLAM AND CHRISTIANITY: AN ANALYTICAL AND COMPARATIVE STUDY <p>This analytical and comparative study aims to explore and analyze the perspectives on animal rights in Islam and Christianity, two of the world's major religions. The treatment of animals and their rights within religious frameworks is a topic of significant ethical, cultural, and social relevance. By examining the teachings, scriptures, and historical practices of Islam and Christianity, this research seeks to highlight the similarities and differences in their approaches to animal welfare and rights. The study begins with an overview of the beliefs and attitudes towards animals in both religions. Islamic teachings emphasize the importance of kindness and compassion towards all living beings, reflecting the concept of stewardship over the Earth. Christianity, on the other hand, often draws from the Biblical notion of human dominion over animals while also emphasizing themes of compassion and responsible stewardship<strong>.</strong></p> <p>The study will delve into historical and contemporary practices within Islamic and Christian societies, highlighting instances where adherence to or deviation from religious teachings has impacted the treatment of animals. Additionally, the role of religious leaders, scholars, and institutions in shaping attitudes towards animal rights will be examined. It will shed light on how these religions address the moral responsibilities of humans towards the non-human creatures they share the planet with, and how these perspectives have evolved over time. Ultimately, the findings of this research can facilitate discussions on fostering a more compassionate and responsible approach to animal welfare within religious contexts and beyond<strong>.</strong></p> Dr Muhammad Sarwar Dr Muhammad Ashfaq Dr Ahmad Raza Aamir Shahzad Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-08-18 2023-08-18 3 2 276 287 THE OBSTACLES IN REGULATING CRYPTOCURRENCIES/BITCOIN <p>This study focuses on exploring the potential of blockchain-based financial applications and the cutting-edge technology "Blockchain"/Bitcoin. The major goal was to describe how blockchain may transform the financial sector. The study covered several intriguing blockchain-related financial applications that may offer varied advantages. The study also clarified the difficulties in implementing blockchains for financial markets.</p> Syed Saqlain Ul Hassan Saima Sajid Sidra Kanwel Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-08-20 2023-08-20 3 2 288 298 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM ANXIETY AND AFFECTIVE STRATEGIES USED BY LEARNERS AT THE UNIVERSITY LEVEL IN PAKISTAN <p>This study aims to examine the link between anxiety in the foreign language classroom and productive strategies used by graduate-level students in the Pakistani context. The instruments used for this research consist of FLCAS prepared by Horwitz (1986) and SILL refined by Oxford (1990). The study involves 116 participants who are currently enrolled in graduation-level programs at a private college in Multan, Pakistan. The findings of this research indicate that 60% of learners are active users of these affective strategies, with a mean score of 18.64 out of a total score of 30. The higher levels of use of affective strategies are found to be related to lower levels of English language anxiety, although insignificantly. Moreover, female participants (mean score = 19.34) were found to use affective strategies more than their male counterparts. (mean score = 17.44). A negative relationship is also observed between FLCA and affective strategies used by the students at graduation level programs in Pakistan.</p> Dr Faisal Hanif Muhammad Naeem Naeem Aamer Aziz Rahat Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-08-23 2023-08-23 3 2 299 309 NEXUS BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH, ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM ECONOMIC COOPERATION ORGANIZATION COUNTRIES <p>Environmental sustainability is the most important concern all over the world due to low carbon emissions. A sufficient study has been conducted about the factors that influence carbon emissions in various regions of the world, whereas ECO (Economic Cooperation Organization) countries have yet to have such literature. The goal of this study is to examine the impact of economic growth, energy consumption, trade openness, gross capital formation, and urban population on carbon dioxide emissions using panel methods. Panel data we used in this research from 1993-2019 for nine economic cooperation organisation economies. We use the different panel unit root, Cross-sectional dependency, and panel Waterland tests, especially FMOLS and DOLS. The various Panel Unit Root test outcomes demonstrate that, at 1<sup>st</sup> difference, all variables are stationary. Panel cointegration techniques like (Westerlund) verify that the entire set of variables is cointegrated. In the end, FMOLS and DOLS findings reveal that all variables, including economic growth, consumption of energy, urban population, trade openness, and urban population, have a favourable and statistically significant effect on emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, gross capital formation has no statistically significant impact on emissions of carbon dioxide. The research outcome of this study helps every relevant stakeholder, particularly practitioners, environmentalists, and researchers, in developing applicable policies for the sustainability of the environment, like in the reductions in carbon dioxide emissions in the Economic Cooperation Organization.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ibad Ullah Misbah Nosheen Kashif Raza Shah Naveed Ahmad Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-08-26 2023-08-26 3 2 310 334 F.I.R. DENIAL BY POLICE: A LEGAL AND ETHICAL DILEMMA <p>The denial by police to record First Information Reports (F.I.R) presents a complex and multifaceted challenge within law enforcement's legal and ethical framework. This research article delves into the heart of this dilemma, exploring the legal implications, ethical considerations, and the broader impact of such refusals on the justice system and society at large. Through a comprehensive analysis of relevant case law, statutes, and ethical guidelines, this study examines the reasons behind police refusal to register F.I.Rs, the consequences of this practice, and the ensuing erosion of public trust in law enforcement agencies. The article also evaluates the potential remedies and policy changes necessary to address this issue effectively. By shedding light on the legal and ethical dimensions of F.I.R. denial by the police, this article aims to contribute to a deeper understanding of the challenges faced in ensuring accountability and transparency within the law enforcement system. It underscores the urgency of addressing this dilemma to uphold the principles of justice, fairness, and public confidence in the legal system.</p> Sidra Kanwel Nazia Ayub Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 3 2 335 343 SERVANT LEADERSHIP AND JOB PERFORMANCE: THE ROLE OF TRUST IN THE LEADER <p>Servant leadership improves human resource behaviours, makes employees happy and promotes their performance. This leadership style emphasises fulfilling followers' needs, and accepting servant leadership results in increased levels of job satisfaction, inspiration, appreciation, independence and trust. Numerous healthcare sectors face various issues; one among those is to adopt a leadership style which is acceptable to employees, makes them happy and stimulates job performance. In light of this, a conceptual framework was designed where leader trust is constructed as a moderated between servant leadership and job performance. Preliminary data was collected from 130 Assistant Managers and Managers of the private sector hospitals in Peshawar city using the purposive sampling technique. Results reveal a strong significant association between servant leadership and job performance. Additionally, this relationship is moderated by leader trust. The study has practical and theoretical contributions and provides avenues for more investigations.</p> Mazhar Khawar Naveed Farooq Muhammad Waseem Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-09-03 2023-09-03 3 2 344 360 EXAMINING THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK: TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN UNDER INTERNATIONAL AND PAKISTANI LAWS <p>This research article assesses the legal landscape governing the trafficking of women under both international and Pakistani laws. It explores the alignment of Pakistan's domestic legal framework with international standards and obligations, shedding light on the strengths and weaknesses of the country's anti-trafficking measures. Through legal analysis, case studies, and empirical data, the study identifies gaps in the legal framework, challenges in enforcement, and gender-specific vulnerabilities faced by trafficked women. It emphasises the need for international cooperation to combat transnational human trafficking networks effectively. The research offers insights and recommendations for policymakers, legislators, and civil society to strengthen Pakistan's commitment to combating human trafficking and protecting the rights of trafficked women.</p> Muhammad Imran Khan Humaira Meer Muhammad Usman Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-09-05 2023-09-05 3 2 361 381 EFFECTS OF FLOOD ON EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS STUDENTS IN DISTRICT CHINIOT <p>Overflow from water bodies such as lakes, rivers, or oceans is called a flood. Such calamities do irreparable harm to several sectors in any location. Like other sectors, the education sector was also affected by floods; this study's main focus was to observe the effects of floods on students' enrolment, attendance, and performance in curricular activities in Tehsil Bhowana. District Chiniot has three tehsils: Chiniot, Lalian, and Bhowana. Among these tehsils, Bhowana was partially affected by flood. The flood-affected schools include 13 male and 17 female public schools. The population size was 65 male and 78 female teachers, respectively. A random sample of 121 respondents was selected, and data was collected by using a questionnaire. The research was quantitative and descriptive in nature. The data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The main findings were the spread of infectious diseases, lack of proper planning by the government, temporary migrations, food shortage, damaged school buildings, student absenteeism, dropping out from schools, unhealthy environment, psychological effects on teachers and students, and temporary closure of schools were the main effects of the flood on students’ enrolment, attendance, and curricular activities. It was concluded that floods not only create hurdles in the learning process of learners but also close schools permanently or temporarily, destroy infrastructure, displace families, and spread infectious diseases. The study’s main recommendations were alternative sites, schools, not evacuation centers, a proactive planning approach by the government, more funds in the budget for damaged schools’ buildings, and health services being provided to the affected ones on an urgent basis.</p> Muhammad Sarfraz Rana Muhammad Amir Muhammad Iftikhar Mehtab Norin Rizwan Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-09-08 2023-09-08 3 2 382 402 PROBLEMS, CAUSES, AND SOLUTIONS IN CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION AT SECONDARY LEVEL IN DISTRICT KASUR: TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS <p>The study investigated the Problems, Causes, and Solutions in Curriculum Implementation at the Secondary Level in District Kasur: Teachers’ Perceptions. Curriculum implementation is a stage in the curriculum process when in the midst of learning activities, the teacher and learners are involved in negotiation aimed at promoting learning. This is the interactive stage of the curriculum process which takes place in the classroom through the combined effort of the teachers, learners, school administrators and parents. It also integrates the application of physical facilities and the adoption of appropriate pedagogical strategies and methods. The population comprised all public and private secondary schools of district Kasur. Multistage sampling techniques were used. The instrument of study was a questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The study's findings showed that teachers faced many problems in curriculum implementation and suggested many solutions. It is suggested in this work that senior staff and faculty deans be required to add the responsibility of overseeing their subordinates to the administrative role. Teachers should be appropriately motivated for their noble task with this intense oversight.</p> Dr Fahd Naveed Kausar Mehwish Liaqat Sara Abid Abdul Malik Khan Mubeen Yaqoob Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-09-11 2023-09-11 3 2 403 425 SOCIAL INCLUSION OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES: RIGHTS-BASED APPROACH <p>Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) are considered the most vulnerable and less included part of society. Being the signatory of the United Nations Conventions on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), it is obligatory for the Government of Pakistan to ensure their rights for their inclusion in the mainstream. This paper focuses to know the extent of social inclusion of PWDs in the context of the rights-based approach that emerged after the enactment of UNCRPD. The respondents were physically and visually impaired, both male and female, belonging to the age group 18-42 and presently engaged in employment either government, private and self within the territorial boundaries of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. In the present study, the gender of the respondents, their age, their marital status, their family income, their level of disability, their level of education, their residential background and the total number of PWDs in their family were independent variables, while social inclusion with respect to the right of education, health, employment, cultural, recreational, political participation, social protection and accessibility was the dependent variable. Bivariate analysis was carried out by using Chi-Square and Somer’s D tests to know the association between dependent and independent variables. The results reflected more inclusion of persons with disabilities who were male, married, residing in urban areas, had mild levels of disabilities and had higher family income.</p> Haroon Rasheed Naimat Ullah Hashmi Mazhar Hussain Bhutta Abid Ghafoor Chaudhry Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-09-15 2023-09-15 3 2 426 441 THE CPEC-SOVEREIGNTY DILEMMA BETWEEN PROSPERITY AND AUTONOMY: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY <p>The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) stands as a monumental endeavour within the matrix of infrastructural projects, connecting China's Xinjiang region to Pakistan's Gwadar port. While the economic ramifications and potential benefits of CPEC are extensively studied, its intricate ties with the concept of state sovereignty remain in the shadows of academic discourse. This research paper aims to unravel the multifaceted relationship between CPEC and the sovereignty of participating states, primarily Pakistan. With an intertwined web of economic dependence, potential military and security concerns, infrastructure ownership ambiguities, and the looming specter of debt diplomacy, CPEC presents a complex paradigm that challenges traditional notions of state sovereignty. Furthermore, within the broader tapestry of regional geopolitics, CPEC holds profound implications for surrounding nations, especially within the context of the India-Pakistan-China trilateral dynamics. By dissecting these dimensions, this paper seeks to provide a comprehensive understanding of how mega infrastructure projects like CPEC shape, redefine, and, at times, challenge the very tenets of state sovereignty in the contemporary geopolitical landscape.</p> Said Ali Muhammad Hamza Zakir Muhammad Arif Syed Hammad Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 3 2 442 459 IMPACT OF CORPORAL PUNISHMENT LAW ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE STUDENTS AT THE SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL <p>Corporal punishment in schools has been a persistent and contentious issue worldwide. This comprehensive research article investigates the effects of corporal punishment laws on students' academic performance in public secondary schools in Kasur District, Pakistan. The study explores the prevalence of corporal punishment, its impact on academic achievement, and the awareness and opinions of teachers and students regarding its implementation. The research instruments involved were the students’ questionnaire (Cronbach Alpha, 0.69), which consisted of 53 items regarding the effect of and awareness about corporal punishment, and the teachers’ questionnaire (Cronbach Alpha, 0.92) which consisted of 49 items regarding corporal punishment law. The population of this study consisted of all secondary school teachers along with all students enrolled in secondary schools in Kasur district. Employing a descriptive research and survey design through a multistage random sampling technique, 32 schools, 125 teachers, and 750 students were selected; this research delves into the relationship between corporal punishment and students' educational outcomes, providing valuable insights into a critical aspect of the educational landscape. For the further implication of this research, it should be conducted on a large scale.</p> Muhammad Imtiaz Hafiz Muhammad Afzal Haroon Dr Muhammad Arif Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-09-22 2023-09-22 3 2 460 477 CLIMATE CHANGE AND FOOD SECURITY: EVIDENCE, IMPLICATIONS, AND CONVERGENCE FOR AFRICAN COUNTRIES <p>The strong and complex multifaceted climate change impacts in African countries are evident from long-prevailing hunger and food insecurity, hence widespread undernourishment. The present study is designed to investigate the continuously evolving climate change impacts affecting the food security status of agrarian food-insecure African countries to envisage factual research-based policy implications for development practitioners and stakeholders. For this purpose, the data of key variables have been taken from 1990-2019, the Driscoll Kraay second-generation regression analysis has been employed for overall analysis. For in-depth analysis, the error correction method (ECM) with Pooled Mean Group Specification has been used to capture climate change's long-run and short-run impacts on food security coupled with other key control variables such as population density, democratic institutions, arable land and cereal production. The study found that a warmer climate and intensive rainfall adversely affect food security or worsen the condition of the prevalence of undernutrition. The long-run results of Discroll Kraay's methodology clarify that temperature is statistically significant and adversely associated with the prevalence of undernourishment. At the same time, temperature square, rainfall, and rainfall square are statistically significant and positively related to undernourishment prevalence. As far as the concern about the short run using Driscoll Kraay coefficient of error correction term is found to be negative and statistically significant, showing that there is convergence towards its long-run equilibrium. The estimated model also suggests that the adaptation of climate-smart technologies is helpful in the escalation of food security.</p> Uzma Hanif Noman Arshed Fahmida Zahid Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 3 2 478 499 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SELFITIS SCALE (SS) <p>The increase in the use of smartphones has led to the emergence of new trends in mobile phone photography. One such trend is the growing use of capturing "selfies" through mobile phones. "Selfie” is a self-portrait photograph of oneself taken through a smartphone. In the current study, a scale was developed to explore the selfie-taking and posting behaviour among university students in Pakistani culture.</p> <p>The tool development and validation study were conducted in three phases. In the first phase, approximately 60 students were interviewed individually to generate the item pool of selfie-related thoughts and behaviours in them. The repeated items were excluded, and a list of 20 items was generated that was used for a pilot study on 30 university students as a self-report measure of a 4-point rating Selfitis scale. The final checklist of the Selfitis Scale and Demographic Questionnaire was administered to 300 university students, including 154 boys and 146 girls.</p> <p>Results revealed that the scale had high construct and concurrent validity, internal consistency, split-half reliability, and test-retest reliability. Moreover, factor analysis generated three factors solution, namely Screening Portion, Seeking Social-Satisfaction, and Seeking Self-Satisfaction.</p> <p>Indigenous selfies scale can serve as a comprehensive tool for the assessment of the selfie-taking and posting phenomenon in the young generation for future research studies.</p> Sajjad Hussain Muhammad Mansoor Abbas Maryam Rizvi Ali sher Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-09-28 2023-09-28 3 2 500 513 The Role and Services of Women in the Dispensation of Islam (An Exploratory Analysis) <p>Women have rendered valuable services to protect the basic beliefs and traditions ​​of Islam. If today's women can realize their ideals, their role in serving the religion can be very wonderful. At the beginning of Islam, the way women sacrificed their lives and wealth for the sake of religion and nurtured the newborn plant of Islam they are an example for women to follow until the Day of Judgment. If the life services and character of the righteous Ummah are studied, then this fact becomes clear that the services of these pure and holy women at the beginning of Islam are favors for the entire Ummah۔ It is clear from the study of the Qur'an, Sunnah, and history that the role of women as well as men are indispensable in Da'wah. Equal responsibilities have been imposed on men and women regarding “Amr bil-Ma'ruf and Nahi-anil-Munkar.” Women played an equal role alongside men in the process of establishment of religion during the Prophet's era. Women have always played a prominent role in the struggle for Da'wah and Iqamat-i-Din. In the beginning of Islam, despite the difficult conditions, women stood together step by step. Today, religion is going through a very critical period. The values and traditions ​​of religion are being violated; in such a situation, women have to play the role of the women of the early centuries. There is a need for education and training of women of today as in the golden era of Islam in such a way that they can play their role in spreading Islam's message of peace and security.</p> Dr Hassan Mohi-ud-Din Qadri Dr Muhammad Sarwar Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 3 2 514 527 UNRAVELING GENDERED LANGUAGE: AN IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS OF LINGUISTIC DISPARITIES AND SOCIETAL INFLUENCES <p>Since the 1970s, the study of gender as a social construct within the context of language use has been a prominent topic. It is often observed that individuals of different genders tend to employ distinct expressions when using language. Lexical choices made by the speakers or writers play on the cognition of the listener or reader and reduplicate gender-related biases or preconceived notions even when the recipients of the message are gender-neutral. Various theories have emerged to address this issue, including the Deficit Theory, Dominance Theory, Radical Theory, Difference Theory, and Reformist Theory. Moreover, numerous stereotypes tend to convey more unfavorable judgments concerning women's language as opposed to men's. Various factors influence the gendered usage of linguistic forms, including employment and marriage prospects, industrialization, urbanization, and social networks. In the realm of education, it is crucial to emphasize three key areas: subject content, the teaching and learning process, and classroom materials. Long-standing traditional practices and patriarchal social systems discourage women from uplifting and persist in perpetuating gender bias. Gender Inequalities are not limited to a single dimension, but they are shaped by a complex interplay across different areas of life. The purpose of this paper is to look at the disparities in gendered language and to conclude if there is such a thing as gendered language.</p> Syeda Zainab Shabbar Dua-e- Rehma Eaman Kaiser Tabinda Shameem Jafri Copyright (c) 2023 PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences) 2023-10-03 2023-10-03 3 2 528 537