• Muhammad Hamza Zakir LLM, Scholar Department of LAW, AWKUM
  • Rashna LLM, Scholar Department of LAW AWKUM
  • Salman Ali Legal Practitioner, KB Bar Council, Peshawar Pakistan


Cross-Border, Trademark Infringement, Digital Age, Jurisdictional Challenges, Harmonization Efforts


Within the ever-changing realm of the digital era, the issue of trademark infringement across borders has become a complex obstacle that challenges the traditional limits of safeguarding intellectual property. The research paper explores the intricate relationship between digital technologies, online platforms, and the limitations in enforcing trademark rights across different jurisdictions. The study examines the complex legal challenges that legal systems worldwide face when dealing with the global movement of goods, services, and information. The paper explores how different jurisdictions, like the United States, European Union, and China, tackle the increasing problem of cross-border trademark infringement. Additionally, the study thoroughly analyzes global attempts to achieve harmonization across nations and their effectiveness in resolving conflicts between worldwide trade and local legal systems. This paper aims to contribute to finding practical solutions that align trademark protection with the realities of the digital era. It does so by exploring the details of jurisdictional intricacies and potential pathways for harmonization. This research highlights the importance of countries working together to protect intellectual property rights and promote a global economy in the context of cross-border trademark infringement.


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04 Eng Final July Dec 2023 Vol 03 Issue 02 Citation Page




How to Cite

Zakir, M. H., Rashna, & Ali , S. (2023). CROSS-BORDER TRADEMARK INFRINGEMENT IN THE DIGITAL AGE: JURISDICTIONAL CHALLENGES AND HARMONIZATION EFFORTS . PAKISTAN ISLAMICUS (An International Journal of Islamic & Social Sciences), 3(2), 51–69. Retrieved from